Textile, fibers, and woven threads are all synonyms for the word cloth, and all derive from the Latin word textiles, or the French word Texere, which means to knit, and thus this word includes threads, ropes, braids, and fabrics that resulted from various methods of weaving. and weaving.
The fabric or textile industry began in the prehistoric era, where the cloth was manufactured using old manual machines and continued to develop until it reached what it is in our current era, where cloth is produced using modern electronic machines.
An example of ancient textiles produced by the African people is the net. Silk, cotton, and linen fibers were also used as a material from which fabrics were made, especially in ancient Egypt. China also produced silk, and India produced cotton nearly 3,000 years ago. It is worth noting that in order to produce cloth, it is necessary to spin or knit, so that ropes are produced from fibers or threads, and there are several types of threads that vary in their names and raw materials.
How to make cloth
The raw materials from which the cloth is made
The basic materials that go into the manufacture of cloth include three categories: natural materials from plants, natural materials from animals, and materials manufactured by humans. Examples of materials taken from the plant are cotton, which is harvested using machines, and then sent to the factory for cleaning, And removing the seeds, and impurities from it. Linen is also one of the types of plants from which cloth is made, as it is pulled from the ground using hands, then processed, combed, and seeds removed, and then prepared to make linen cloth from it. As well as the silk that is taken from the cocoon of the silkworm.
The fabric that is made of cotton is called a year-round fabric, because it is suitable for all seasons, as it gives the body coolness in the summer, and provides it with heat in the winter. It is also soft and is used in the manufacture of infant clothing. As the fabric that is made of silk, it is one of the most expensive and luxurious types of fabrics, as it is used to make luxurious clothes and expensive evening dresses due to its softness and luster. Indian silk has gained worldwide fame. Linen fabric is considered the king of natural fabric as it does not cause irritation or sensitivity to the skin when worn; This is due to its high natural properties.
As for the materials that come from animals, they are wool, which is processed and prepared manually or using electronic machines. As for the manufactured materials, there is rayon, which is an alternative to silk and is made of cellulose by a machine called the spindle, and there is nylon. and polyester too, and cloth made from natural materials is always considered the best; This is because it does not change its color due to exposure to ultraviolet rays and does not lose its properties.
The main steps of fabric manufacturing
The cloth from its various sources passes through three manufacturing steps. The first step begins with the production of yarns, or the so-called spinning. This is done by processing raw materials and converting them from raw fibers to yarns. Then, the yarns produced are assembled on a wooden body called the bobbin, which in turn transports ropes of yarn. to another machine, and to continue the spinning process. After the yarn is prepared, it moves to production, which is the second step of the manufacturing process, where the yarn is tied together by a process called knitting, which is done on a machine known as the loom, where this machine is connected to the computer, and after the knitting process is finished, the yarn becomes similar to white paper and is ready The final step or finishing touch is production, whereby the cloth is cleaned of grease and oils that are naturally produced from the fibers. The aim of the last step, which is also called the finishing process, is to improve the product and make it fit for consumption, as the fabric produced before the curing process is dirty, tough, unsuitable, and likable for the consumer. The finishing process consists of chemical and mechanical processes, such as bleaching and texture treatment. Notably, untreated fabrics are called gray goods.
It cannot be said that the fabrics, after processing, are ready for shipment and use in the manufacture of clothing, as they need to become colored, which is called dyeing. The dyeing process begins by placing the fabric in a machine called a mercerize. This machine contains a mixture of chemical solutions at a very low temperature. This step aims to expand the pores of the fabrics to make them more capable of accepting dyes. of the mineral to be primed and able to take in more pigments. It is worth noting that in the past, dyes were extracted from plants, but nowadays dyes are manufactured in chemical laboratories, and they are called reactive dyes, and their idea is based on their interaction with minute particles (moles) in the fibers of wet tissue, to form a strong bond and thus prove color on the fabric.
The types of dyes vary according to the type of material used in them, as there are factors that are taken into account when choosing a dye, such as its stability when exposed to light, the extent to which it is affected by washing and rubbing, as well as its cost. The dyes that are used to dye wool, silk, and nylon are called acid dyes, while direct dyes are those that are applied to fabrics that contain cellulose fibers, and there are color-fixing dyes to which chemical salts are added, and are used to dye silk and wool. There are sulfur dyes as well, which are used to dye cellulose, but they do not give much shine to the fabric, as they are cheap dyes, and there are aromatic dyes that are used to dye cotton.
It can be said that there is not much evidence of the development of fabrics, and the reason for this is due to their rapid deterioration and disintegration of tissues, but they most likely took the forms of animal skins in ancient times, as they were thrown on the body in order to obtain warmth. Sewing needles made of bone were found near Russia in 1988 AD, and they were used to sew animal skins, and are said to date back to about 18,000 BC. Clay discs representing tissues from 8,000 BC were also found, and textile remnants were also found in Anatolia dating back to about 6,500 BC. The production and export of silk have begun in ChinaAbout 2,800 BC. When the Industrial Revolution began in the nineteenth century, the wealthy traded fabrics such as silk, lace, and linen, while ordinary people wore clothes made of cotton and wool. The great development in the textile industry, it occurred in 1891 AD in France, when synthetic fibers were invented, which in turn led to reducing the cost of clothing.