soap is one of the most important industries that are part of human daily life, and it cannot be dispensed with; Where there is no home without soap, it is one of the industries that has been known for thousands of years and is still developing to this day with modern developments. Various cleaning jobs, whether in their homes, businesses, schools, or any other place. Soap is defined in the dictionary as the substance that is used to clean and wash various things and objects.
The word and name soap is an expression of the Persian word Sabon, which is a substance that contains a group of salts and fats and accepts decomposition in water. The Arabs used soap, so they made sure to manufacture it, and then it moved to European countries.
How to make soap
There are many methods used in soap making, whether factory or home and the following is information on how to make soap:
Soap making in factories
The soap industry in factories depends on the use of oils and fats, and two methods are used in this industry, namely:
- The cold method: It is one of the economical and inexpensive methods for soap manufacturing factories of small size; Where this method depends on mixing glycerin with soap and not separating it from it.
- Hot method: It is a method used by large-scale soap factories; By relying on the use of the best types of glycerine, which is characterized by its high price; Which contributes to obtaining a soap of good quality. As for how to make soap, it depends on the following steps:
- The soap-making process, known as saponification, begins with a volume of 5 to 150 tons.
- The fat is placed in the pot until it reaches half its volume, and then it starts heating at a temperature of 100 degrees Celsius, depending on the use of steam directly, and later soda is added to it in successive batches.
- After a period of time on the occurrence of the required interaction between soda and fat, quantities of more concentration of soda must be added; Through successive batches, while maintaining boiling.
- The saponification process (soap making) takes between 12 to 24 hours, and the end of the process is confirmed by a set of tests.
- After making sure of the end of the saponification process, the separation of glycerine and water from the soap begins by relying on table salt, and leaving it in the pot until its temperature reaches 60 degrees Celsius, and this process continues between two to five days.
- After the previous step is finished, a group of additives is added to the soap, such as colors, perfumes, and materials that help increase the volume of the soap, such as sodium silicate and sodium carbonate.
- The finished soap is added to molds or kneaded to increase its homogeneity, and later the soap bars are cut into a group of pieces according to the required size, and the type and name of the soap are written on it.
Home soap making
goog_1720766716Most families and families are interested in the process of making soap at home; In order to use it in cleaning operations inside the house, and the following is information on how to make soap at home:
- The materials used in the soap industry, are a stick made of wood, a sharp knife, an iron bowl, a kilogram of caustic soda, 5 kilograms of olive oil, leather paws, molds made of wood, and 5 liters of water.
- The method of making homemade soap, which includes the following steps:
- The first step: water is placed inside the iron bowl, and later caustic soda is placed, and the mixture must be stirred well; By using a stick made of wood until the soda is completely dissolved, then olive oil is added to the mixture while continuing to stir the mixture, and the mixture is soaked for a whole day. hands and the bowl used for mixing materials should not be made of aluminum; Because of its interaction with soda.
- The second step: the mixture is placed on the fire and stirred using a stick made of wood from time to time, and then perfume is added to the soap, and the process of boiling the soap mixture remains between 8 to 10 hours until the stage of maturity of the mixture is reached, and it is possible to realize this when the nature of the mixture changes It becomes heavy and separates from the water that remains at the bottom of the pot.
- The third step: the leaking water at the bottom of the pot must be removed and separated from the soap mixture, and then the mixture is poured into a large mold made of wood, and before the soap reaches the stage of drying, it is cut according to the required sizes and shapes, and left to dry completely away from the sun, and cleaned for a period of time. Two weeks or depending on the influence of the weather, and finally the soap is ready for use at home.
Types of soap
Soap is classified into several types, namely:
- Solid soap: It is soap made from fats and oils with saturated acids and mixed with sodium hydroxide.
- Soft soap: It is a soap that has a semi-liquid nature and its manufacture depends on the saponification of potassium hydroxide with a group of fatty substances.
- Commercial soap: It is a soap made from cheap grease, and coconut oil is often used with this soap. The soap produced by grease is hard and does not melt easily; This contributes to providing a suitable foam.
- Solid non-melting soap: It is the soap made only from coconut oil, and it is distinguished by its hardness, but it is not used with ordinary water, but with salt water.
- Transparent soap: It is a good soap and its ingredients are coconut oil and castor oil.
- Luxury soap: also called Castile soap, is made from olive oil.
- Shaving soap: It is a soap that has a soft nature, and its components are sodium stearic acid and potassium.