The first civilization in history, the civilization of Mesopotamia
The Mesopotamian civilization is considered the cradle of civilizations, and it is the first civilization in the world. The Mesopotamian civilization is located in Iraq in the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
The presence of these two rivers contributed to the emergence of civilizations on the land of Iraq, in which agricultural societies, considered the first in the world, appeared. Among the most famous civilizations of Mesopotamia are the Babylonian, Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, as well as Chaldean civilizations.
The rise of civilization in Mesopotamia - Mesopotamia - appeared in successive stages, and these stages were named according to the city in which they appeared, and they are arranged as follows: first Hassuna, then Samarra, and then Hilf, followed by Ubaid, Warka, and the last of which is Jemda Nasr. A group of great kingdoms arose on the land of Mesopotamia, and these kingdoms are:
Kingdom of the Sumerians
The Sumerian Kingdom is the first kingdom of Mesopotamian civilizations, and it is the oldest civilization in the world. The majority of scholars agreed that the original inhabitants of Iraq were the Sumerians, and their civilization was known as the Ubaid civilization, and their lands extended to the island of Dilmun in the south ( Bahrain ).
The Sumerian language is known as one of the conjugate languages, and they are the languages in which every two words are attached to each other a single singular that has a meaning that corresponds to the meanings of each word in it. The Sumerian civilization has three phases or eras, it spanned from 2800 BC until 2400 BC, and although each of these eras has its own characteristics that distinguish it from others, the Sumerians, in their different eras, had many innovations that distinguished them from other peoples. They excelled in the arts of architecture, especially in building temples and palaces, and in their era, metal casting and sculpture, as well as mining, developed.
The Akkadians are people who were displaced from their homeland ( the Arabian Peninsula ) and moved to live in Iraq, and it is also believed that they lived in the period when the Sumerians were in Mesopotamia. The beginning of the era of the Akkadian kingdom was when Sargon of Akkad united Iraq under one banner. Sargon's rule lasted for fifty-five years, during which he carried out many reforms in the army as well as in the system of government. His reign was marked by a great development in the arts and architecture. Among the most important kings of the Akkadian state, in addition to Sargon, the king (Nram-Sin), who ruled the Akkadian state for a period of up to forty years.
The Babylonian state was characterized by the abundance and breadth of its cities, as it had a distinction in the field of science and codification of research, and the ancient Babylonian era is considered the road that brought the Mesopotamian civilization to the farthest parts of the world, and when talking about the Babylonian kingdom, it is necessary to mention its most famous king, Hammurabi, the sixth king of the Babylonians (1728). - In 1686 BC; Hammurabi was known for his firmness and good management, so he was able to unite the country because of his unique qualities.
The Assyrians are people who migrated from the Arabian Peninsula, and it is also believed that they came from southern Iraq, and settled in the northern regions of Mesopotamia. Among the most important kings of the Assyrian state:
- Shalmaneser I: His reign was marked by foreign conquests.
- Sargon II: had many achievements, the most important of which were: building a new city near Nineveh (the city of Sargon), as well as eliminating the Jewish kingdom in Samaria.
- Ashurbanipal: who was distinguished by his culture, was a lover of knowledge and literature, as he collected books from all over the country, and placed them in a special house for books that he built near Nineveh.
Over time, many civilizations have emerged that have had great and clear effects in various parts of the world, and among these civilizations:
- Ancient Egyptian Civilization: The existence of the ancient Egyptian civilization coincided with the existence of the civilizations of ancient Iraq (Mesopotamia). The ancient Egyptian civilization was famous for its ancient cities such as Thebes, Abydos, as well as Memphis (Memphis).
- Chinese Civilization: Chinese civilization was famous for its artists and thinkers such as Confucius, who did not claim to be a prophet, but he described himself as a reformer, and his laws had a great influence on the history of China.
- Greek Civilization: The Greek civilization was established in the country of Greece and spread there, and its center was the island of Crete. This civilization was distinguished by its literature and philosophy, and its most important thinkers were Aristotle and Plato.
- The Roman Civilization: It is one of the most important ancient civilizations, and it was a prosperous civilization in economic terms, and the Roman civilization lasted for fifteen centuries.
- The Mayan civilization: It is one of the civilizations of Latin America, and this civilization was distinguished by its knowledge of days, and dates accurately, as its peoples had three types of calendar, and they were aware of the number zero, in addition to their knowledge of astronomy, mathematics, and astrology.