The Romanian Civilization
The Roman civilization is considered one of the most important ancient civilizations in the world. Roman civilization depended on slaves and serfs who worked hard under the command of the upper class of nobles and feudal lords, and this class - that is, the nobility - did not give the slaves and the toiling poor any attention, and did not give them neither freedom nor rights, like many ancient civilizations Which was afraid of the revolution of these poor people. Trade was not in the interest of the Romans because of what they saw in it, as they considered buying, selling, and negotiating prices as dishonorable acts that devalue the owner.
The Romans paid great attention to urbanization, so they excelled in building temples, arenas, theaters, and baths. These landmarks have remained witness to their ingenuity to the present day. Among the most important Roman monuments: The Roman Amphitheater:
- The Roman Amphitheater: is located in the center of Amman, the Jordanian capital. It was built during the reign of Antonis Bemus, the Roman Emperor in the period between 169-177 AD. The Roman amphitheater can accommodate six thousand people, and in front of the Roman amphitheater there is a private plaza for public meetings (in English: Forum), and this square is surrounded by a group of Corinthian columns on three sides.
- Colosseum Amphitheater: The Colosseum is located in the Italian capital, Rome. The Colosseum is one of the largest amphitheaters built during the Roman Empire, with a capacity of 45,000 to 50,000 people. Its construction began during the reign of Emperor Vespasian and ended during the reign of Titus, the Roman Emperor. Some modifications and additions have been made to it. The arena of this amphitheater was used in mass competitions as well as in gladiatorial performances.
- Pillar Pillar: One of the Roman monuments in the Egyptian city of Alexandria is the Pillar Pillar, the last Roman trace left from the temple built by Postumus (Temple of the Serapeum). This temple was erected in memory of Diocletian, the Roman emperor. This pillar is located in the area between the archaeological hill of Kom al-Shaqafa, and between the area of the column burials, which are Muslim burials at the present time. It is reported that this column was made of red granite and is approximately 27 meters long.
- The Roman Theater in Alexandria: The Roman theater is located in the Kom El-Dikka area and was built in the early fourth century AD. This theater consists of numbered amphitheaters made of marble, and at the top of this amphitheater, there are five booths with domes and columns.
- The city of Tipasa: The city of Tipasa is one of the remaining archaeological Roman monuments in Algeria, which contains a large group of Roman monuments such as theaters, temples, and shrines.
- Temple of the Pantheon: The Temple of the Pantheon is located in Rome. Work began on its construction during the reign of the Roman Emperor Trajan, but the completion of its construction was not completed until the reign of Hadrian in the year 125AD. The temple was built on the ruins of two ancient temples that were destroyed by lightning and fires. 608 AD to a church.
- Trajan's Column: Trajan's Column was built to be a witness to the war in which Trajan, the Roman emperor, won against the Kingdom of Dacia. It was built of marble and reached a length of 38 m.
- The Temple of the Black Head: The Temple of the Black Head was discovered in 1936 AD in Alexandria. It is a two-story temple; The lower floor was designated for worship, while the upper floor was used for housing. This temple was built on a high floor with a four-column facade designed in an Ionic style, and its hall reaches a small square-shaped room.
- Temple of Jupiter: This temple is located in Lebanon, specifically in the Baalbek region, which was considered an important religious center. This center is known as Heliopolis. Its construction was completed in approximately 60AD. The Temple of Jupiter is the largest of the temples in Heliopolis.
- Kom El Shoqafa Cemetery: This cemetery is located in Alexandria and is one of the largest public Roman cemeteries that have survived the effects of that civilization, and the history of this cemetery dates back to the second century AD.
The Roman civilization was distinguished by its wide art in various fields. Roman art was influenced by the arts and cultures of other civilizations, such as Greek, Etruscan, as well as Egyptian. Among the most important areas in which they excelled are:
- The art of painting: Roman painters invented the art of landscape photography, and they drew their paintings using wax or using a mixture of egg yolk and dyes, which is known as the tempera mixture. The Romans excelled in drawing oil murals of various sizes, and the paintings of the city of Herculaneum and the paintings of the city of Pompeii are among the most important Roman arts that have reached us in the field of painting.
- The art of sculpture: the Roman sculpture is divided into four main sections:
- Historical inscriptions: which are represented in the engravings of full and half statues as well as equestrian statues, and the most important of these statues: the statue of Trajan and the head of Nero located in the British Museum, as well as the statue of Titus located in the Vatican Museum.
- Funerary inscriptions: as carvings of coffins and tombs. Funerary inscriptions appeared remarkably after the Romans switched from burning the dead to burying them in coffins, and there were three types of coffins; Such as the coffins that were made in Athens, the coffins that were made in Romania, as well as the coffins that were made in Phrygia.
- Irregular copies of ancient works of the Greeks: these copies contributed to preserving the history of Greek art, most of which disappeared, and these copies are among the most important things that Roman art presented to the history of art in general.
- Wall paintings and mosaics: The influence of the Romans on oriental arts appears in the frescoes and mosaics, and the Hagia Sophia Church is a wonderful example of Roman art because it contains elaborate frescoes and mosaics, in addition to its wonderful domes, which ten thousand specialists and workers contributed to building.