Latin American Civilizations
In Latin America, a group of civilizations emerged that had the greatest impact in shaping the civilization and culture of Latin America in its current contemporary form, and among these ancient civilizations; The Mayan Civilization, the Aztec Civilization, the Inca Civilization, and the Indic Civilization. In addition to those successive civilizations, the influence of European civilization on the civilization of Latin America was clear to become like it an orthodox Christian tint, and this influence was clear in various fields of arts, music, social customs, literature, and even the method and form of construction, and in this article, we will talk about One of these ancient American civilizations is the Aztec civilization.
|Definition of the Aztec civilization|
The Aztecs were called the Tenochca people, or the people of Mexico, and the word Aztecs derive from Aztlan, one of the words mentioned in the myths of Mexico. However, after the weakness of this city, its inhabitants - the Toltecs - migrated from the north to central Mexico, and in the thirteenth century AD, the Valley of Mexico was attacked by the Shechemek who took control of the Toltec cities and their culture merged with each other, forming the Aztec civilization.
And the writing of the Aztecs is pictographic writing that uses inscriptions of pictures and drawings to express things, and for sound syllables, and they also used pictorial writing in the field of arithmetic counting. As for the religious system and worship, the Aztec peoples worshiped the forces of nature, believing that the benevolent gods must remain strong in order to protect the world from the bad and evil gods, and for this, they offered them sacrifices and sacrifices. Among these deities:
- The Sun God: The Aztecs worshiped the sun and offered it to them, prisoners of war, as they used to offer the heart of the sacrifice after taking it out by means of a stone knife, and they used to raise it while it was vibrant towards the sun and then throw it into the fire.
- Rain God: The Aztecs also worshiped rain, and the rain god was known as Tlaloc.
- God of the Wind: The Aztecs worshiped the wind along with the sun and rain.
The clothing of the peoples of the Aztecs
The Aztecs had distinctive manual skills, and they excelled in spinning cotton and spinning the fibers of the Maguey fibers. As for the clothing of the Aztecs, it was loose for men, with long sleeves, and skirts for women. The clothing of the Aztec people had distinctive designs, decorated with geometric shapes. As for the headdress and banners, the Aztecs used to make them from feathers.
Science and commerce among the Aztecs
The Aztec civilization had knowledge of the various areas of life that would ruin their lives, and these areas include:
- The field of agriculture: The Aztecs were aware of the irrigation system, and they also used fertilizers in agriculture, and despite their work in agriculture, they did not know the plow; They dig small holes for planting and put seeds in them. The Aztecs planted corn, and their women would grind it with stone spears.
- Industry: In the field of industry, the Aztecs made baskets and pottery, and used tree trunks after being made in the form of small boats (canoe boats) for traction and carrying; They had no draft animals or even carts.
- The field of trade: In the field of trade, currencies were not known to the Aztecs, and instead they used cotton clothes, cocoa beans, and salt for barter, sale, and purchase. Trade in the Aztec civilization extended to areas that were not under the control of their people, and the merchants who took their trade to those areas were spies working for the Aztec empire.
The arts of the Aztecs
The majority of the arts in the Aztec civilization express their religious concepts, which depict religious ceremonies and rituals, and their brightly colored paintings were painted on tree bark paper or on walls, and the Aztecs were distinguished by carving and engraving, both of their sunken and prominent types. The calendar stone is one of the most famous statues of the Aztec civilization (3.7 meters in diameter and 22 tons), where an image of the sun is engraved surrounded by circles symbolizing the heavens and the days. The Aztecs carved small statues of animals or people from ruby or quartz, as well as obsidian stone (rock glass).
The Aztec calendar
The Aztec civilization had two calendars of its own, which the Aztec people used to know the days and calculate them during the year, and these two calendars are:
- The first calendar is the Cheopali calendar or the solar calendar: This calendar consists of 365 days divided into eighteen months, each of these months having twenty units, in addition to a period of five empty days that come at the end of the year called nemonttime; These are ominous days for the Aztecs.
- The second calendar, which is the Tunalboali calendar or the day-counting calendar: Consists of 260 days, and this calendar has twenty symbols and thirteen numbers. It is mentioned that the calendar for counting days is parallel to the solar calendar every fifty-two years.
Discover the Tower of Skulls
In Mexico City, scientists discovered a tower of human skulls underground, specifically in the city of Tenochtitlan (the capital of the Aztecs), and this tower contained the skulls of children and women, in addition to the skulls of captured fighters. The number of these skulls reached more than 650, and the diameter of this tower was revealed, reaching approximately six meters. Scientists believe that this tower is part of the Tzombantli tradition, a tradition in which skulls are placed on shelves in order to spread terror in the hearts of the Spaniards. invaders.
Tovar Codex and the Aztec Civilization
The Tovar manuscript, attributed to the Mexican Juan de Tovar, is distinguished by the quality of its paintings from an artistic point of view, and it talks about the rituals and rituals of the Aztecs. This manuscript includes fifty-one watercolors. This manuscript is divided into three sections:
- The first section: The first section talks about the travels of the Aztecs and their history in the period before the arrival of the Spanish conquest of the country of the Aztecs.
- The second section: The second section depicts the history of the Aztec people through illustrations showing their religious rites and rituals as well.
- The third section: The third section contains the Tovar calendar.