Niagara Falls is the second-largest waterfall in the world and is located in the North American continent, on the common border between New York City in the United States of America, and the city of Ontario in Canada. Table Rock, Bridal Vale Falls between Goat Island and Luna Island, and American Falls between Prospect and Luna Island, The flow rate of its waterfalls is also described as the highest in the world, because its waters flow from the top of the waterfall, which reaches a height of 50 meters.
|Location of Niagara Falls|
Niagara Falls consists of three sub-falls that differ in their characteristics, as follows:
- Horseshoe Falls: The Horseshoe Waterfall is the largest of the three waterfalls, with a width of 792 meters and a height of 48 meters. It is also the most powerful waterfall among all the waterfalls on the North American continent. In addition, the Horseshoe Waterfall receives the most water from the Great Lakes, accounting for 90% of the total flowing water, and the name comes from the curved shape of the waterfall.
- American Falls: reaches a height of 51 m, and a width of about 323 m.
- Bridal Veil Falls This waterfall, also called Luna Falls, is located on the American side, and this waterfall with a height of approximately 55 meters is the smallest of the three Niagara Falls, and its name is derived from the shape of the water at Falling through it, it resembles the bride's scarf.
The falls were first discovered by Native Americans who inhabited the area, but it was not documented as an area with distinctive characteristics until a Belgian priest named Father Louis Hennepin saw them, which was later mentioned in his book entitled "New Discovery"; which inspired many people to discover the area, then the Falls became a tourist destination since the early nineteenth century, after the development: The second hypothesis was put forward by George Stewart, who believed that Niagara was the name of a city known as ongniaha, meaning "an area of land cut in two".
The source of the water in the waterfalls
About 170,000 cubic meters of water flow into Niagara Falls per minute per day, at a rate of up to 113.3 thousand cubic meters. The Niagara River is the source of this water, in addition to the large lakes near the waterfalls such as Lake Erie and Lake Ontario; Which were formed 18,000 years ago by the accumulation of water in the basins of the Great Lakes as a result of the melting of large amounts of ice located in the southern part of Ontario, in addition to some topographical changes in the region.
Geology and properties
Niagara Falls was formed coinciding with the era of glacial immersion in Wisconsin; As the glaciers passed over the area, a hole was created in the rocks, and new terrain was formed, the most important of which is the Niagara River. Annually freezing and melting, which caused the slow erosion of the rocks of the river bed, and consequently, the rocks began to fall against the direction of the river, the problem of Niagara Falls. cm southward every year until the fifties of the twentieth century; The edge of the falls has been stabilized due to the control of the river's flow.
The economic importance of the waterfalls
Niagara Falls plays a large role in shaping the overall yield of the economy; through a number of sources, including the following:
Niagara Falls is a natural tourist destination that attracts about 13 million visitors annually, so the region is provided with many tourism services that provide employment for about 40,000 workers, in addition to supporting more than 1.8 million jobs in Canada.the most important sectors supported by the presence of Niagara Falls and Niagara Falls Airport, which provides employment for more than 2,600 workers. the presence of the Falls is associated with many jobs available in the region, such as tenant roles, contractor work, and dual service positions. The Niagara tourism sector contributes more than 2% of Canada's GDP, and the government has developed a new federal strategy to support Niagara tourism, which in turn will contribute to creating more jobs, as well as increasing economic benefits.
Power generation and industry development
Man is constantly looking for sources of energy generation. Since the mid-19th century, manufacturers and entrepreneurs have turned to hydropower generated by Niagara Falls to power water-powered mills and factories. Scientists then discovered the ability to harness hydropower to generate electric power in the Eighties of the 19th century, called hydropower; many scientists, such as Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and Kelvin, went to Niagara Falls to experiment with hydroelectric power generation, which became the first source of hydropower in North America in 1895.
The form of life changed in the 20th century with the construction of these stations; entire cities were provided with electricity for the first time in human history, heavy industries flourished, and new industries requiring great energy emerged, namely, the thermoelectric industries, and the electrochemical industries; which caused a huge technological revolution and had an impact on the manufacture of some raw materials involved in the manufacture of some advanced inventions, and thus Niagara Falls became an important industrial and scientific center and a station for future visions of the creation of unlimited energy.
Ethnic diversity and the attraction of the population
The areas surrounding Niagara Falls are distinguished by their cultural and ethnic diversity. With the industrial development that appeared in the area, which led to a growing need for labor, many people moved to the area with the aim of working and inhabiting it. They became local residents, and given that they have different ethnic backgrounds and diverse cultural customs and traditions, This led to the emergence of societies rich in civilizations in the region.
The climate of the region
The climate of the Niagara Falls region is described as mild in summer, and relatively cold in winter, and the summer season in the region lasts for approximately three and a half months, from the end of May until mid-September, and the average temperature in summer is about 21 degrees Celsius, and the temperature may rise more than that. Usually, the 20th of July records the highest temperatures in the region, while in winter the weather is freezing, dry, and windy, and this weather continues for more than three months, from early December to mid-March, and the average winter temperatures are approximately 5.5 degrees Celsius, and temperatures may drop in winter, and January 29th usually records the lowest temperature in the region.
A visit to Niagara Falls is a special experience; It includes many beautiful landscapes, especially in the summer and spring, and the area enables the visitor to practice many activities, including the following:
- Ride the Maid of the Mist, which takes visitors through the waters of the falls.
- Participation in the Excursion Beyond the Falls program; Which gives visitors the opportunity to hear the sounds of the enormous waterfalls.
- Watch the air shows over the sky of the falls, which are held by the Royal Canadian Air Force, and Niagara Falls Air Station.
- Visit the Niagara Falls Butterfly Garden to admire more than two thousand colorful butterflies.
- Participate in the Ontario Festival of Lights Power Generation, which is held in the winter, and watch a series of wonderful fireworks at night.
- Visit Niagara Basin, Science Museum, Whirlpool State Park, Devils Hole State Park, Reservoir State Park, Niagara Adventure Theater, and Hyde Park.
General facts about Niagara Falls
The following shows some interesting facts about Niagara Falls:
- The waterfalls are visited by large numbers of tourists during the summer, and in order to keep the view of the water flowing strongly from the waterfalls, visitors are present; The hydroelectric power stations in the area convert less water during the summer.
- Niagara Falls is constantly eroding, so scientists assume that the waterfalls will disappear after 50,000 years, but the great diversion of the waters of the waterfalls to produce electrochemical energy has contributed significantly to reducing the rate of erosion.
- A dangerous activity is practiced over the waterfalls, which is walking on a tightrope. This activity began in 2012 by a person named "Nick Wallenda", after obtaining permission from the American and Canadian governments, and it should be noted that this experience caused some people to suffer injuries and death.
- In the Falls area, there is the oldest park in the United States, the Niagara Falls State Park, which was opened in 1885.
- The waters of the waterfalls are distinguished by their high clarity, due to the fact that they are free of sediments.