America is known officially as the United States of America, abbreviated by the first three letters (USA), and its system of government is according to its federal republican constitution, and its capital is Washington, and the English language is its official language with the use of Spanish unofficially among some American residents, as the dollar is considered a currency. (USD) abbreviation for its official currency.
The area of the United States of America is approximately 9,826,675 km², and the United States is located in the northern part of the American continent, and it shares territorial and political borders with Canada, which it borders on the north, the Atlantic Ocean on the east, and Mexico on the southern border. It is bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the west.
geography of America
The geographical regions that make up the scattered terrain in the United States of America are divided into five regions, which are:
- Coastal Plains Region: They are the plains extending to the Gulf of Mexico and the outskirts of the Atlantic Ocean, and they are narrow in the north, and the Appalachian Heights in the northeastern states of the United States overlook its coast, and then these plains expand in the south to the Gulf of Mexico region, and there are ports on its coasts that connect With Western Europe, this region is also distinguished by its diverse climate and soil.
- Appalachian Highlands Region: They are high areas extending from the northeast to the southwest within a group of US states, namely: Vermont, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine, and Connecticut, bordering the coasts down to the middle of Alabama, reaching an altitude of 1800m. In the southern side, it decreases to 1200 m in the central side, while it reaches 600 m in the northern side.
- The Central Plains: They are the plains to which the Appalachian heights descend gradually. The flow of the Mississippi River begins, which depends on its tributary to two rivers: Tennessee and Ohio, which descend from the Appalachians. The extension of the central plains begins from the Great Lakes region located at the parts of the Lawrence Mass; As a result of the advance of the ice cover towards the south; In the past, during the Ice Age, it was a group of valleys of simple nature.
- The Upper Plains Region: Also known as the Great Plains, it forms the western side of the Central Plains region, and then begins to rise gradually from a meridian of 100 degrees in the west towards the Rocky Mountains, and the Great Plains are considered to be very flat plains, although they are characterized by a gradual eastward gradient It also cuts the western tributaries of the Mississippi River, including the Arkansas River, the Red River, and the Missouri River.
- Western Cordillera: They are the areas that make up approximately one third of the area of the United States of America, and contain a group of mountains and plateaus that are divided into the following:
- The Rocky Mountains: They are mountains with a height of approximately 4267 m, overlooking some areas of the Central Plains region, and snow is permanently spread on their mountain peaks.
- High plateaus: are plateaus that form the area between the western Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains on the eastern side, and these plateaus are known by a number of names, such as: the Grand Canyon and Colorado.
- The Great Basin Plateau: It is a group of longitudinal refractive mountains that together form parallel mountain chains, and its height ranges from 3048 m to 3353 m, and a group of often closed basins spread among them.
- Columbia and Sneak Rivers Plateau: It is a plateau located in the northern part of the Great Basin plateau, and its height ranges from 2134 m to 2743 m. The soil of volcanoes on its surface.
The climate in the United States of America is classified into several forms, the most important of which are:
- Rainy semi-tropical climate: It is the climate that affects the southeastern parts of the states, and is characterized by moderate temperatures in the winter and accompanied by a group of cold waves sometimes, as it is affected by high heat in the summer, and rain continues in the regions of this climate throughout the year.
- Cold humid climate, and includes two types, namely:
- Long and hot summer climate: is the range in which winter temperatures are low; Where it falls below zero degrees, but rises in the summer to more than 22 degrees Celsius, and rain falls in this climate in most months of the summer, and this climate is also called the maize range; Because it contributes to providing the ideal environment for the cultivation and growth of corn.
- Mild summer climate: It is known as the wheat climate, and it is located on the northern side of the corn climate, and the winter season is colder than the previous climate, and the summer temperature is less, and this climate affects the states located in the northern and central section, including New York, and some parts of Pennsylvania , New England, Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, a portion of South Dakota, and North Dakota.
- Dry summer and semi-tropical climate: It is an influential climate in the central western region of the state of California, and this climate is characterized in the summer by the influence of temperatures of a supratropical nature, while the winter season is moderate, and the rate of rainfall is average.
- Marine climate: It is the prevailing and affecting weather in the northern part of California, Oregon, and western Washington. The main contributor to timber production in America.