What countries does the equator pass through?
The equator extends up to 40,075 km around the world and passes through only thirteen countries:
Sao Tome and Principe, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Somalia, the Maldives, Uganda, Kenya, Colombia, Brazil, Indonesia, Kiribati, and Ecuador.
However, the passage of the equator in the Maldives and Kiribati is limited to their water areas without passing through the land areas in them.
Sao Tome and Principe
Sao Tome and Principe is located in Central Africa, and according to the Global Positioning System (GPS), it is located at longitude 6.613081 and latitude 0.186360, within the coordinates “10.896’ 11 0°N” and “47.092’ 36’ 6°E”, The region has a warm and cloudy climate all year round, and is characterized by temperatures ranging from 23.89 to 27.78 degrees Celsius, and the temperature rarely drops below 22.78 degrees Celsius or more than 28.89 degrees Celsius.
Gabon is located in Central Africa, bordered by Equatorial Guinea to the west, the Republic of the Congo to the east and south, and Cameroon to the north. 0 south, and 33.998' 36' 11 °E.
The climate of the capital of Gabon, which is called Libreville, is characterized throughout the year with temperatures ranging between 22.77 and 30.56 degrees Celsius, and rarely below 21.67 or rising to 32.22 degrees Celsius, The wet season is characterized by high temperatures accompanied by clouds, while the dry season is warm and partly cloudy, and rain continues in the capital for 10 months during the year; It starts from August 17 to June 29.
Republic of the Congo
The Republic of the Congo is located in Central Africa, bordered by Cameroon and the Central African Republic to the north, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the east, Gabon to the west, and Angola to the southwest. 0°S, 39.572' 49°15'E.
The temperature in the Republic of the Congo at night ranges between 16 and 21 degrees Celsius, and depending on its location on the equator, the average daily temperature is 24 degrees Celsius, and its climate is generally humid; The Republic experiences rain during the season that begins in October and extends to May, but two of the months of this period are accompanied by a short dry season, namely: January and February, as the Congo witnesses The dry season usually lasts from June to September.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo shares borders with several countries, as it is bordered by Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania, and Burundi to the east, the Republic of the Congo and Cabinda Province in Angola to the west, Sudan and the Central African Republic to the north, and Angola and Zambia to the south.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo is a country with land borders; As it has only a few kilometers of coastline along the Atlantic Ocean, its territory extends within latitudes 5°30'N and 13°50' South, and a third of its area lies north of the equator, and according to the Global Positioning System, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is located on the Longitude (21.758664) and latitude (-4.038333) within coordinates 17.999' 2°4' S, 31.19' 45°21' E.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo is characterized by the diversity of its climates; It is divided into four main climatic zones, namely:
- Tropical climate: It is characterized by high temperatures, as the average monthly temperature rarely drops to the mid-twenties Celsius, and is also characterized by high humidity and rainfall throughout the year.
- The Atlantic climate zone: It is limited to the western coast of the country, and is characterized by an average annual temperature of the mid-twenties Celsius.
- The mountainous climate region: It includes the high eastern plateaus and mountains, and the average annual temperature is 18.33 degrees Celsius.
- Tropical or subtropical climate zone: It is located in the north and south of the tropics and is characterized by a dry and rainy season, and the measured distance from the equator affects the period of the dry season; It may last from four to seven months, usually from April to October, while dry periods last only weeks during the rainy season.
Uganda is located in eastern Africa, and Kampala is its capital.
Uganda is devoid of coasts; It has land borders only, with Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and it is located at longitude 32.290275 and latitude 1.373333 within the coordinates “23.999 ’22°1 N, and “24.99 ’17°32” In the east, Uganda enjoys a warm climate in general, due to the moderate temperatures and abundance of rain in it, where the average annual temperature ranges between 24 and 31 degrees Celsius, and the annual precipitation ranges between 900 and 1600 mm.
The Republic of Kenya is located on the equator and shares borders with Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Somalia, and the Indian Ocean, and it is located on the longitude (37.906193), and the latitude (-0.023559) within the coordinates “24.812’ 1°0 south, and 22.295' 54° 37' E.
The climate in Kenya varies; Where the tropical climate prevails in the areas along the coast, while the dry climate prevails in the interior regions, and the hot and humid climate prevails in the area around the city of Mombasa; The region witnesses a rise in temperature, in January and February; Where the temperature in them reaches 31 degrees Celsius, while it reaches 27 degrees Celsius in the months from July to September; As cold weather prevails in them.
Somalia is one of the countries of the Horn of Africa, located in the far east of Africa, and extends from the south of the equator towards the north to reach the Gulf of Aden.
It is worth noting that Somalia occupies an important geographical and political position between the countries of the Arabian Peninsula, Southwest Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa, At longitude 46.199616, latitude 5.152149 within coordinates “7.736’ 9°5 N, and 58.618’ 11° 46° E.”
The climate of Somalia is characterized as a hot climate throughout the year, which is accompanied by monsoons, irregular periods of precipitation, and hot and humid weather prevails in the two periods of monsoons, during October and November, as well as in the extended period From March to May; Because of the very high temperatures that occur during these months, it is known as the tangambeli.
The average daily maximum temperatures in Somalia range between 30 and 40 degrees Celsius, except for the areas along the eastern coast and high areas.
The average daily minimum temperatures range from 15 to 30 degrees Celsius, and the temperatures in southern Somalia are less severe.
As for the coastal areas, the temperature varies between five and ten degrees below its value in the interior regions, which makes the coastal areas cooler, and the coastal areas maintain relative humidity that usually reaches about 70%, even during the dry seasons that periodically spread in Somalia.
As for the climate prevailing in Mogadishu in particular, it is rarely pleasant, despite that, the season is more moderate in the period from May to October, and the reason for this is due to the sea breeze and the blowing of the southwest monsoon, in When the northeast monsoon blows relatively moderately from October to February.
South American countries
Ecuador, located in the continent of South America, has common borders with Colombia in the north, Peru in the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean in the west.
It is located on longitude (-78.183406) and latitude (-1.831239) within the coordinates “52.46’ 49° 1 south, and “0.262” 11 78° W.
Frost can sweep through the high areas of Ecuador during clear and cloudless nights in the dry season.
Peaks with a height of more than 4998.72 m are covered with snow, and a humid and tropical climate prevails in most of Ecuador; The reason for this is because it is located on the equator, while temperate climates prevail in areas located at altitudes between 792.48 and 2011.68 m.
The Costa region is affected by an air current called the cold Peru Stream, and it is also affected by important changes related to the movement of the convergence-tropical zone.
Warm weather prevails in the coastal and eastern regions, accompanied by a slight difference in temperature throughout the year, while the temperature varies more between night and day; The average daytime temperature ranges between 28.89 and 32.78 degrees Celsius, while at night it ranges between 20 and 23.89 degrees Celsius, and the temperature drops by an average of 12.78 to 11.67 degrees Celsius as the altitude increases by 1,005.84 m.
Colombia is located in South America, specifically in the northwest region of it, and shares borders with several countries; It is bordered by Ecuador and Peru to the south, Brazil and Venezuela to the east, Panama and the Pacific Ocean to the west, and the Atlantic Ocean across the Caribbean Sea to the north and 50.399' 17°74' W.
Hot weather prevails in Colombia, especially in the low-lying areas, especially the eastern ones, due to its proximity to the equator, and the temperature is significantly affected as the area increases; It decreases by two degrees as the altitude increases by 300 m above sea level, and rain falls in Colombia in different amounts according to the location of the region; Where the southern regions witness heavier precipitation than in other regions.
According to the Global Positioning System, Brazil is located at longitude (51.925280) and latitude (-14.235004) within the coordinates “6.014’ 14° 14’ South, and 31.008’ 55° 51” West, while geographically it is bordered to the north by Venezuela and Guyana Suriname, French Guiana, Uruguay to the south, Paraguay and Argentina to the southwest, Bolivia and Peru to the west, Colombia to the northwest, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east It is also noted that Brazil has a coastline of 7,367 km.
There are temperate regions in Brazil although it is a tropical country; Where hot tropical weather prevails in general in the Amazon basin, and Brazil experiences rainfall in the period from October to May; Where rain is heavy in the upper Amazon basin, in the lowlands, along the northern coast, in certain areas of the eastern coast, and in the interior regions of southern Brazil, where the annual precipitation rate exceeds 300 cm in some areas, while the northeastern regions are subjected to heavy rains From Brazil to dry periodically.
Brazil experiences the greatest drop in temperature from May to September; The weather is very cold, and snow may sometimes fall on the plains of the cold highlands in the south, while temperatures witness their greatest rise in the period from October to March; Very hot weather prevails in Brazil, and it is noteworthy that the average high temperature in Rio de Janeiro reaches 29 degrees Celsius in February, while the average minimum temperature is 17 degrees Celsius.
There are many terrains in Brazil, including the Brazilian highlands, the narrow coastal lowlands, and the highland plains with a temperate climate. It is worth noting that the Brazilian highlands constitute nearly half of the total area of Brazil, and are classified as semitropical, while the narrow coastal lowland divisions vary; As the areas of the northern lands fall within the tropics, while the areas of the southern lands fall within the temperate regions.
The island nations between the Indian and Pacific Oceans
the Maldive Islands
The Maldives is located on the equator in the middle of the northern Indian Ocean.
It is an independent island country. It is located astronomically at longitude 73.220680 and latitude 3.202778 within coordinates 10.001 '12° 3 N and 14.448 '13° 73 E.
The Maldives is affected by a monsoonal climate consisting of two different seasons; This is because it is located on the equator; Where the northeast monsoon blows from January to March during the dry season, while the Maldives is affected by the southwest monsoon during the wet season, and temperatures rarely differ in these two seasons, which means that the islands of The Maldives stay at about the same temperature throughout the year, but it differs at night from during the day; It ranges from 31 degrees Celsius during the day to 23 degrees Celsius at night to be gentle and moderate in the evening, accompanied by cool sea breezes even on hot days; Due to its island nature, it is surrounded by the sea.
Temperature observations indicate that the highest temperature ever recorded in the Maldives was 36.8 degrees Celsius, which was recorded in the Kadhdhoo Meteorological Office on the nineteenth of May 1991 AD, while the National Center of Meteorology recorded On the eleventh of April of the year 1978 AD, the lowest temperature reached in the Maldives was 17.2 degrees Celsius.
Kiribati is an island country located in the central tropical Pacific Ocean.
It consists of thirty-three atolls spread over an area of 3,500,000 km2 near the equator. It is located at longitude (157.363026-) and latitude (1.870883) within the coordinates “15.179’ 52°1 N, 46.894' 21 157° W.
It is hot and humid in Kiribati; Where the tropical marine climate prevails in it, and you can witness cyclones at any time, but they often occur from November to March, and the average daily temperature in Kiribati is 28 degrees Celsius, which cools the winds However, the average temperature in Kiribati is relatively constant throughout the year, in addition to the fact that the air temperature in Kiribati is greatly affected by the ocean temperature surrounding the atolls and islets.
The nature of the climate prevailing in Kiribati is similar to the climate prevailing across the tropical Pacific Ocean, which in turn affects the climate throughout the world; The climate of Kiribati varies greatly from year to year; This is due to the Southern Oscillation, which is known as the El Niño phenomenon, while the change in temperature from one season to another during the same year is considered very simple, not exceeding one degree Celsius.
Indonesia is an archipelago of several islands, numbering 18,108 islands, where the number of inhabited islands is only about seven thousand.
Longitude (113.921327) and latitude (-0.789275) within coordinates “21.39’ 47° 0 S,” 16.777 ’55 113° E.
The tropical climate prevails in Indonesia; Due to its proximity to the equator, the temperature varies depending on the nature of the country, which includes the plains and mountains. The average temperature in the coastal plains reaches 28 degrees Celsius and decreases by 5 degrees Celsius in the higher mountainous areas, and the humidity varies from one city to another in Indonesia; Humidity reaches its highest level in the interior of Kalimantan, western New Guinea, western Sumatra, Java, Bali, and Sulawesi, with precipitation of more than 2,000 mm annually. Bokor, near Jakarta, is the most affected area in the world annually, Where it is exposed to 322 storms.