Philosophy appeared for the first time in about the sixth century BC in ancient Greece, at the hands of those who are called natural philosophers, such as Thales, Anaximenes, and Anaximander, because their research and thinking may focus on naturalness and understanding the origin of the universe, Then philosophy went through many stages after that. It made it more prosperous, as all ancient societies experienced philosophy and dealt with it and with it. What is philosophy? Who are its pioneers? What are the most important books that have been written?
concept of philosophy
Philosophy as a language
The origin of the word philosophy in the language is a combination of two Greek words, the word Philo meaning love, and the word (Sofia) meaning wisdom, so that the meaning of philosophy becomes complete, which is the love of wisdom.
Some historians trace the term to Pythagoras; Where who considered himself a philosopher, as some refer to Socrates, who also described himself as a lover of wisdom, that is, a philosopher, to distinguish himself from the group of sophists who claimed wisdom, as others attributed to Plato; He touched on the word to find a description that satisfies Solon and Socrates.
The meaning of the word philosophy developed and passed through many phases, and philosophers differed in defining it from one country to another:
- Al-Kindi defines it as: “the knowledge of things with their facts according to the capacity of man.”
- Al-Farabi defines it as: “the knowledge of existing things as they exist,” as he defined it in another place as “the only comprehensive science that puts before us a comprehensive picture of the universe, and the science that gives the beings reasonableness with rational proofs.”
- Avicenna defines it as: “The completion of the human soul by visualizing things and believing in theoretical and scientific facts according to human capacity.”
- Philosophy is absolutely defined as a mental view that is free from all restrictions and authority imposed on it from the outside; So the mind is the ruler of revelation, custom, and the like.
The most important philosophy books
Many books and references were written that established the science of philosophy, which was established after I succeeded in adding the following, followed by a statement of the most important books of philosophy and an overview of one of them:
- Sophie's World: The novel Sophie's World by the Norwegian writer Jostein Gaarder, written in 1991 AD, is a simple novel and an introduction to the science of philosophy. Where the story is based on the dialogue of a child named Sophie with a philosopher who writes to her to teach her the principles of philosophy and its history simply and smoothly. The novel is classified among the most critical cognitive novels; Where it was distinguished as interesting for the reader despite the scientific material presented, which is almost devoid of enjoyment.
- Logic and knowledge: In this book, the philosopher Bertrand Russell presents a group of his first articles, which are considered his greatest philosophical contributions, especially his article on semantics, which he published in 1905 AD, in which he presented simply his theory of descriptions, which greatly influenced the tradition of content and style in a way complete; Throughout this book, the reader discovers why Russell is considered a great philosopher.
- Philosophical Investigations: Ray Monk, professor of philosophy at the British University of Southampton, considers this book one of the greatest philosophical works that ever came to the world, authored by the philosopher Dovig Wittgenstein, and the book is distinguished by its real meaning, and it is easy to read despite the difficulty Understanding its meanings, as the book questions the nature of mind and consciousness and attacks the bias and tendency that philosophical thinking includes, as the attack launched by Wittgenstein on this assumption has many facets and wide imprints in the various types of philosophical thinking.
- Civilization and Value: The author of the book, the philosopher Dovig Wittgenstein, has repeatedly written many of his personal observations and impressions on civilization and society.
- The limits of the sense: The writer of the book, the British philosopher Peter Straw, is considered one of the twentieth-century finalists who can write naturally and gently, and his book is beautifully written; In his book Critique of Pure Reason, after extracting it with psychological axioms, the ambiguity and romance of the most important work of the philosopher Kant appears.
- Metaphysics as a Guide to Ethics: This book by Irish philosopher Iris Murdoch presents a group of lectures that deal with philosophical concerns in the life and work of Murdoch; Where the book discusses the understanding and meaning of the strengths of Platonism according to the writer's view as a person of the high artistic and literary sense. Some of the arguments in the book may need a bit of precision, but the way they articulate what many feel that our moral judgments must have a metaphysical basis is respectable.
- Thus spoke Zarathustra: This book, written by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, is one of the things that made a difference in the history of German philosophy in particular, and world philosophy throughout its history in general, and this book is a summary of Nietzsche's thought and the product of his 56 years of life experience.
- Utopia: The book talks about utopia. Where the English philosopher Thomas More imagined the existence of a utopia on a virtual island in the southern hemisphere, and many believe that the site he chose is the site of the islands of Japan, to make them a place where people live that life whose details were described in this novel by a sailor named Raphael Heathloday; He lived there for five years.