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What is football?


Football is the most popular game all over the world; It occupies the largest number of followers and the largest number of players who play it. According to the reports of the International Football Association, the number of players who played this game at the end of the twentieth century was about 250 million and more than 1.3 billion followers and spectators. In different places such as gyms, official stadiums, or even streets, parks, or many other places.

Football is a team sport based on the principle of cooperation and team spirit, where two teams are formed, each consisting of eleven players, who pass the ball among themselves to enter it into the opponent’s goal, and they are prohibited during this from using their hands to deal with the ball, except for the goalkeeper who He is allowed to do so as long as he is inside what is known as the penalty area, and the game ends with the victory of the team that scores the most goals in the opponent's goal.

soccer equipment

the ball

Many international companies manufacture the soccer ball with advanced, modern, and gradual designs since the history of its initial industry, dates back nearly a hundred years ago; The ball, which consisted of 32 pieces of leather and assembled into a spherical shape, was made in the seventies of the twentieth century, then the ball developed to consist of 14 pieces that do not contain any stitches and take the shape of a ball, and then it was modified in 2010 to consist of only eight pieces, These developments followed through the design of new balls in the year 2013.


The average length of the field over which a football match is played is approximately 100 meters, while the average width is 60 meters, but this varies according to the laws of the International Football Association (FIFA). The federation has established official dimensions for the size of football fields, especially those on which the official matches of the game are held, where the minimum length of the field should not be less than 90 meters and not more than 120 meters, and its width should not be less than 45 meters and not more than 90 as a maximum Maximum, and usually, the famous football stadiums around the world have dimensions of 105 * 68 m, such as the Camp Nou and Old Trafford and others.

The stadium consists of several parts, such as the part known as the goal area and the penalty area. The goal area is defined as a square-shaped area located inside the penalty area, which is the area in front of the team’s goal. Its amount is 5.5 m from the backline of the stadium, and this area is completely contained in a part known as the penalty area that also includes the penalty mark. The depth of the penalty area in the team area is 16.5 m, while the total area is 40.32 m wide, including the goal area. Drawn within the penalty area, specifically 11 meters from the goal line.

Players Equipment

Safety is an important matter that must be achieved and present in any equipment for football players, so according to the international law of the Football Association, football players are prohibited from wearing any kind of equipment that may cause a danger to the player himself and other players, and this includes all types of jewelry, bands, leather and rubber ties, and the referee of the match is responsible for inspecting the players and making sure that they are not wearing any of these things, or even making them take them off if any, and the equipment that a football player must wear during matches, the player must be wearing For a shirt with sleeves, pants, shoes, and socks, as well as a special leg guard to be worn under the stocking, the player must not remove his leg protection and wear a replacement one in case he loses the one he is wearing.

It should be noted that if the socks are covered with anything like masking tape, for example, it must be of a color similar to the color of the socks themselves. Just as these tools are an important part of the game and mandatory in the game of football, the colors of this equipment is also important; Where both teams must wear different and different clothing from the other and different from the referee’s dress as well, and the match goalkeeper must avoid wearing the same dress as the team players or clothing similar to the dress of the match referee, and if the players wear any undershirts, they must be similar in color The shirt sleeve prevails. As for the underpants, they can be worn if they are similar to the color shown under the shorts or the main color for it. The goalkeepers of both teams are allowed to wear the same shirt color in the absence of an alternative.


The goal or what is known as the goal of each team is placed on the center of the goal line, and the goal has two side posts, each of them is placed at an equal distance from the corner signal, and these two posts are connected from the top by a horizontal bar, and these two posts in addition to the crossbar must be made on the Round, square, rectangular, or oval, but provided that they do not pose a danger to players in any way, and are made of certain approved materials such as wood or other materials, and the width of the goal or goal from the inner sides of its side posts is 7.32 meters, While its height from the bottom edge of the crossbar to the ground is 2.44 meters, and the two posts and the crossbar have conditions that must be met; Where they must all be of the same width and thickness, which should not exceed 12 cm for each, and that these three elements are painted white, and the nets of the goals are fixed to both the posts and the ground, and the entire goal must be fixed to the ground.

the rules of football

Players and Substitutions

A football match is played by two teams, each consisting of a maximum of eleven players, including the goalkeeper, and a minimum of seven players; As the arrival of one of the teams to less than this number may lead to the cancellation of the match, depending on how this shortage of players occurs. The playing list and the number of substitutions allowed for the players of the two teams varies depending on the nature of the match, as each team is allowed to substitute five of its players in some competitions, while only three are allowed in the first club matches or team matches, and some categories of teams are allowed to substitute six or twelve players, and in this type of match, both teams must agree on the number to be substituted, and then the match referee is informed of this.

All the main and reserve players of the match are under the authority of the match referee. One of the players on the field may be replaced by the goalkeeper, provided that the referee is informed of this, and then the change is made during any play pause. If his name is on the list, he can be replaced with another player without counting this procedure as an official substitution, but if he is sent off after the start of the match, he may not be replaced with another player, and if anyone other than the main players enters the field, the referee must intervene to remove him from the field, The captain is the person responsible for directing the behavior of his team and does not have any special advantages on the field.


The referee is the first and last responsible for the course of play that takes place in a football match; Where this person applies the laws of the game according to his discretion as he sees fit, and the decisions of the referee and his assistants are considered final decisions that must be implemented, as he is concerned with calculating or canceling goals and determining the outcome of the match, and the match referee has a staff of referees consisting of two assistant referees who give him advice and advice In everything related to the game, and there may sometimes be a fourth assistant who is appointed as a substitute for the match referee in the event that he is unable to complete and complete the arbitration process, and he may be entrusted with some other duties assigned to him by the first referee, and the staff of assistant referees is not limited to the referees on the field ground Where there can be assistant referees for video replay, and these referees are outside the field, and football referees are accredited after training and providing them with the experience and skills they need.

Match duration

The football match is played over two halves of 45 minutes each, and the referee can reduce this period if the two teams agree on this and if the competition laws allow this to be done. These two halves include a break of a maximum of a quarter of an hour. In the event of reaching the extra period, the players of the two teams can be given a very short break that may not exceed five minutes, and no rest time is given between the two extra halves.

Offside in football

The law of offside in football is one of the most difficult laws of the game; As decisions are made in it at the discretion of the match referee, and many precise cases may constitute confusion for some regarding the offside law. There are cases in which the player is offside but does not commit the offside offense, and there are other cases in which the player is not in An offside position but getting the ball to him makes him fall for this offense, and there are times in a match when the offside law is not applied at all.

mistakes in football

Many types of mistakes are committed in the football match, and the penalties for these mistakes vary depending on many things, such as the nature of the mistake committed and the place where it was committed. The player used excessive force, recklessly and redundantly; such as taunting, jumping, kicking, or even attempting to kick or hit him, or attempt to hit him, push him, or obstruct him, or make an attempt to obstruct him, or attack him, catch him, intercept him, or spit on him, or Touching the ball deliberately and this last matter does not apply to goalkeepers, and there is another type of errors that are committed on the field ground, which are those that require the opponent to be given what is known as a penalty kick when the player commits any of the previous mistakes in any part of the penalty area with the opposing team, and during the time the game is in progress.

Indirect free kicks are the last type of acquired fouls for the opposing team; Where the opposing team is awarded an indirect kick if the team goalkeeper extends the time of holding the ball in his hands, throws, and catches it again before it is touched by another player, or catches the ball with his hands while deliberately passing it to him by one of his team players. This violation is if a player obstructs the goalkeeper in a way that prevents him from passing the ball in his hands, or commits an error that is not mentioned in the direct free kick laws, and this violation may also be calculated when a player is sent off or play stops for a specific reason.

The match referee has the authority to issue any disciplinary sanctions in response to any of the mistakes committed, as he can display the yellow card as a warning to one of the main players or substitutes, while the red card is announced to expel a key player or substitute from the match. The referee’s authority and authority to display the cards is not limited to Players who are on the field or even during match time only; As he can announce such cards to the substitute or main players and during the time of playing the match or even after the final whistle is sounded and until the players leave the field, and the player may obtain any of these cards in the event of an infringement on one of the opponent’s team players or one of his team players Or even a member of the referee staff.

football history

The roots of football go back to many games that were played throughout history, and the stories vary in the origins of some of these games, but they all remain based on people’s feeling of happiness for kicking the ball and since antiquity, and it is noteworthy that the first forms of this game date back to the second and third centuries BC, In a form of military exercise based on the principle of moving forward with the ball using only the feet, the Chinese during the ruling Han Dynasty created a game they called Zu zhu, which is based on the principle of kicking a leather ball containing feathers and hair to insert it into a fixed net On bamboo sticks and without using hands in the game.

Another sport of kicking the ball appeared in Japan after about 500 to 600 years, where this game was based on the principle of playing the ball between a group of players who stand in a circle and turn the ball among themselves to prevent it from touching the ground. It is still present in Japanese culture, and the ancient Greeks developed their own game, and in the modern era, England is considered the cradle of the most popular game in the world in its current form, and this dates back to about a hundred years ago, specifically in the year 1863 AD, when both the Football Association and the Football Association He introduced rugby by forming the first football federation in the world, making this federation the first private institution to sponsor the sport of football.


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