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What is Einstein's theory of relativity?


Many people have heard about Einstein and his genius.

He is a German physicist, born in 1879.

He was called the father of relativity for his development of the theory of relativity in physics, which was a major turning point in the history of physics.

Albert Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921, and he had moved from his country, Germany, to Switzerland, and then to the United States of America.

Einstein was born to a Jewish family in Munich, and he was suffering from poor comprehension, but one of his uncles supported his love for science and brought him science and mathematics books, and helped him move more to Switzerland, where the method of teaching was different from Munich.

In addition to physics, Einstein loved music, especially the music of Mozart and Bach, and he played the violin at concerts for charitable purposes.

What is Einstein's theory of relativity?

Theory of Relativity

There has been much talk about the theory of relativity, and how it changed many concepts related to classical physics that prevailed since Newton's time until Einstein's theory appeared.

The theory of relativity, which is also called relativity, is a theory of the German scientist Albert Einstein, and the French scientist Henri Poincaré, who developed the special theory of relativity, also contributed.

It is considered one of the most important modern physical theories, because of its role in changing many physical concepts.

Researches related to this theory were published in 1905 by Einstein, which is called special relativity, and it was related to answering questions about the properties and behavior of light, and the results of the Michelson and Morley experiment on the light the well-known classic.

The importance of the theory of relativity lies, besides that, it changed the basic physical concepts related to mass, energy, space, and time, and made a qualitative leap in space physics and theoretical physics, and modified Newton's mechanical physics theories that prevailed 200 years ago, where the theory stipulated that the relativistic movement of objects With the change of time, and that the concept of time is no longer fixed and definite, and the theory of relativity linked to time and space so that it deals with them as one thing called space-time after they were treated as two different things, and linked time with the speed and movement of the body, as there are concepts of contraction and expansion of the universe in time.

Examples of Relativity

  • Suppose that a person is watching television, he will think that both himself and the television are stationary this is true of the place in which he is, but not true of the universe; The person and the TV move under the influence of a group of movements, including the rotation of the Earth around the sun, the rotation of the Earth around itself, the movement of the solar system in the Milky Way, and the movement of the galaxy in the universe.
  • With the birth of twins at the same time, one of them stayed on Earth and the other left the planet at the speed of light for a year and then returned at the same speed again to Earth, he will find that his twin has reached the age of fifty years and he is still two years old the reason for this is the time dilation of the traveling twins as a result of their movement at the speed of light.

The results of the theory of relativity

The theory of relativity has worked to explain and understand many hypotheses and phenomena, through which scientists were able to understand the nature of interactions that occur between particles, which contributed significantly to the development of some sciences, including nuclear sciences, which increased interest in them after the emergence of the theory of relativity and explained many of the behavior of particles.

Nuclear interactions, and explained their properties and characteristics, and also contributed to the explanation of many cosmic and space phenomena, such as gravitational waves and black holes in space.

The theory of relativity, in general, included more than one physical theory, the most important of which was the special theory of relativity, which was published in 1905, and was accepted in 1920, and is concerned with the values ​​of small molecules and their interactions.

It has been used by physicists in atomic physics, nuclear physics, and quantum mechanics.

As for the general theory of relativity, which was published in 1906, it is concerned with large astronomical values, and the motion of cosmic bodies.

hypotheses of the theory of relativity

The special theory of relativity consists of assumptions that depend on it and form the basis of the theory.

These assumptions are:

  • Stability of the speed of light: The theory of relativity proved that light has a constant speed, regardless of its source and location, and it does not need a medium to move from one place to another, as it is in sound waves.
  • Time is the fourth dimension: Einstein is considered the first to put time as a fourth dimension after the length, width, and height of matter, and he entered the fourth dimension in all his calculations.
  • Denying the existence of the ether: the ether is the thing that exists in the universe and has no limits, and all scientists believed in its existence, but Einstein denied its existence and said that there is only relative place and relative speed.

Newton's laws conflict with relativity

Einstein spent most of his time studying Newton's physics, and he found a mistake in defining Newton's time and place.
According to Newton's laws, it was possible to reach the speed of light, but for Einstein, this is impossible; For the lack of infinite energy to reach this speed, and this cosmic energy is limited.
The two scientists, Isaac Newton and Coulomb, agreed on the laws of motion and charges, where Newton said that nobody moves on its own unless it is affected by a force that moves it, but this theory developed by Newton does not apply to stars, they exist in a vacuum and move without being affected by forces.

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